Problems With Predictions From Old Age Assumptions

The majority of planetary scientists who embraced the idea of evolution as being factual, use predictions which based on old age assumptions. These old age assumptions contain billions of years. But there are problems with using those assumptions, because many times these predictions are discovered to be way off when direct observations are collected from space probes or telescopes.

Alan Boss who is an evolutionist himself, is concerned about progressing data in space exploration which is not matching with scientists predictions on the standard model of accretion into planetesimals. So he comes up with his own prediction in great detail to solve the problem.

“Boss’ new model demonstrates how a phase of marginal gravitational instability in the gas disk surrounding a proto-sun, leading to an outburst phase, can explain all of these findings. The results are applicable to stars with a variety of masses and disk sizes. According to the model, the instability can cause a relatively rapid transportation of matter between the star and the gas disk, where matter is moved both inward and outward. This accounts for the presence of heat-formed crystalline particles in comets from the solar system’s outer reaches.”

One thing you will noticed, computer models rather than direct evidence always makes the supposed evolution of our solar system seem more theoretically practical and more possible. There is no doubt that planetary scientists are very skilled at coming up with various stories which nobody has ever came close to observing in order to keep the data within the old age assumptions.

In contrast, we can obtain a fairly decent feel on how old the solar system really is based on the evidence, by observing processes which are happening in the present. For example, Titan’s processes are far from appearing to be billions of years old!

Titan’s methane has caused some serious problems with old age assumptions, why? Because as pointed out in space.com, Titan’s methane is not being replenished fast enough! As a result, the evidence indicates there is not enough compound to keep the cycle sustainable over a long period of time! So now it’s being predicted to dry up in the future!

But in order to keep Titan’s age in the billions of years, they come up with what? I’ll give you a hint, it’s been used quite often on other planets and moons in our solar system in an attempt to rescue old age assumptions or even to explain the origin of life. If you are not familiar, it’s high impacts. “The team suggests that the current load of methane at Titan may have come from some kind of gigantic outburst from the interior eons ago possibly after a huge impact.” There is no evidence of a reservoir of methane which exists under Titan’s surface! What you don’t see helps the story, what you do see hinders it!

In Science now, describes how flat Titan’s surface is, another indication there was no huge impact! To explain why Titan is so flat, it’s “crust isn’t strong enough to support tall mountains or because its thick atmosphere unleashes methane rains that erode them away.”  

Wait a minute, then it wouldn’t be possible for Jupiter’s moon lo which is smaller than Titan, which supports global volcanism on its surface to contain high mountains! But lo does in fact contain high mountains on its surface!

Pluto is the next to defy old age assumptions. Planetary scientists are gearing up, the spacecraft is set to make its very first flyby in 2015. And as we speak, more predictions are being formulated based on old earth assumptions, but this time, they added on the prediction of surprises that are going to “befuddle” them. Those type of surprises usually comes from problems with the data falsifying old age assumptions in which they set out to fix with creative stories. In any case, it’s going to be exciting to see what the spacecraft uncovers using direct observations!

And what last note, today is the six-year anniversary of this blog, it’s hard to believe that much time has gone by so quickly! It’s been a fun ride so far and looking forward to new discoveries in the future!

Are Uniformitarian Assumptions Becoming Irrelevant?

Holding on to the uniformitarian philosophy causes complications when empirical evidence is discovered! It began with Copernicus who invented a theory which suggests that the Earth is nothing special, what has been going on in the Universe, has been going on for billions of years and will proceed to do the same for more eons to come!

A step by step evolutionary process of H2 forming a dust cloud with some of them having convoluted serpentine shapes, which in turn is a nursery for the formation of stars and then as the result of star formation, planets being shaped by gradual, ongoing processes!  At least in theory anyway, because star formations and the supposed evolution of planets have been a great mystery to researchers for many years.

Secular scientists decided to embrace Copernicus, so much so they began to hate the idea of change because that would mean we are living in a universe that has something special to it! But with new discoveries, some scientists are now abandoning Copernicus and are now saying we living in special times.

In nature

Observations of the distant reaches of the Solar System made in the past few years are challenging that concept. The most active bodies out there — Jupiter’s moon Io and Saturn’s moons Enceladus and Titan — may be putting on limited-run shows that humans are lucky to witness. Saturn’s brilliant rings, too, might have appeared relatively recently, and could grow dingy over time. Some such proposals make planetary researchers uncomfortable, because it is statistically unlikely that humans would catch any one object engaged in unusual activity — let alone several…”

Scientists are observing young phenomena (which the Bible advocates and has been confirmed by empirical science) that is contrary to old-age assumptions embraced by evolutionists, intelligent design proponents, and old-earth creationists about the universe.

Nature goes into great detail on why the phenomena is young…

1) Saturn rings are like a car, when you store a car outside with seasonal changes, the car is going to show wear especially after a long period of time! Likewise space is a harsh environment and Saturn’s rings are 90 percent water ice which should appear a lot dirtier as a consequence of being billions of years old. Of course, these scientists did not embrace a young universe rather they increased the complexity in the explanation by invoking the ad hoc solution which was an icy interloper that broke apart and became the rings within the last few million years. This creates another problem, because that is only a small portion of what the assumed age is.

So researchers are using Cassini in years to come in order to try and find where all of the billions of years of dirt went to and speculation has the dirt supposedly hiding somewhere in the B ring. If the Cassini cannot find it there and the results point to a low mass for the rings then it will increase the complexity of the old-age assumption which is not a good sign if you believe in the old-age.

2)  The geysers of Enceladus represent young phenomena! 16 gigawatts of power which is enormously greater than any internal radioactive heating and the reporter of nature admits that it is very difficult to keep the geysers going for 10 million years let alone for billions of years! Nearby Mimas they say should be producing more heat than Enceladus. So scientists are doing the unthinkable, and that is, they are treating it as a special event!

3) If you think 16 gigawatts of power is difficult to explain in the old-age assumption, try 90,000 gigawatts with its volcanoes! Referring to Saturn’s moon Io. The gigawatts is well above the predictions from models of tidal interactions which is also is well above man’s imagination because planetary scientists cannot not even come up with a scenario to explain it like it often times happens in other areas.

4) Then there is the grand daddy of them all, Saturn’s largest moon, Titan! Atmospheric methane is a known substance to be short-lived rather than something billions of years old. So trying to locate the sources of replenishment has been the focus as well as invoking another explanation! So something special may have happened, one researcher suggested, the sun was the source by being able to warm up to a tipping point for tens or even hundreds of millions of years ago, levitating the frozen nitrogen and methane into an atmosphere that “rained like hell” onto the surface! It will be interesting what else they come up with!

And it’s not only Saturn’s rings and its moons but also Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars, Jupiter and its moons, Uranus and its moons and rings, Neptune and its moons and rings, Pluto and comets, asteroids, and dust. Basically the whole system!

Do you believe science is about honestly, following the evidence where it leads? Then these same scientists would have to conclude that the solar system is much younger than previously thought! You take away old-age assumptions, it clears up all the confusion! No need to invent a story to fill in the falsifying data.Your following the evidence where it leads which brings about clarity not confusion!

Did Earth’s Oceans Come From Asteroids?

For many years, secular planetary scientists believed condensation from the solar nebula, or comets were responsible for the earth’s oceans.  And it would be easy to assume this considering comets are mostly ice which is why it became a popular idea for many years but with direct observations suggests something different.

These direct observations of comets were conducted by the Stardust and Deep Impact which have shattered theories about the origin speculation of comets. Belgian planetary scientists back in 2009, discounted comets saying the earth is too close to the sun, that carbonaceous chondrites contain water sufficient to create a “veneer” of water after the Earth cooled, but observational data of ratios containing osmium isotopes do not match! Also, other researchers have discovered that  nitrogen isotope ratios differed significantly between comets and Earth’s atmosphere!

In Astrobiology Magazine… “Observations from this sample are changing our previous thinking and expectations about how the solar system formed,” a Stardust mission researcher said.

In science daily“A new analysis of dust from the comet Wild 2, collected in 2004 by NASA’s Stardust mission, has revealed an oxygen isotope signature that suggests an unexpected mingling of rocky material between the center and edges of the solar system. Despite the comet’s birth in the icy reaches of outer space beyond Pluto, tiny crystals collected from its halo appear to have been forged in the hotter interior, much closer to the sun.”

What about condensation from the local solar nebula? That is also dead too. Inventing models that suggest the earth is dryer than expected, the so-called “snow line” in planet formation theory is now thought to be even farther out than previously believed which means the water had to be delivered by something.

With everything else discounted, what is next? Their latest option which is out of desperation more than anything else is trying to fit asteroids into the materialist framework along with its difficulties as the source and deliver of the earth’s oceans!

In NASA’s Astrobiology Magazine

“Our results provide important new constraints for the origin of volatiles in the inner Solar System, including the Earth,” Alexander said. “And they have important implications for the current models of the formation and orbital evolution of the planets and smaller objects in our solar system.”

An implication is not a theory anymore than a constraint, generally ad hoc explanations are not scientific.  Because of the desperation with basically no other options left (but that doesn’t mean they could never invent more), there were no calculations on how many asteroids it would take to create the earth’s oceans. Asteroids have more of a problem than comets, because unlike comets which are mostly made of ice, asteroids are mostly made out of rock.

It would take an enormous amount of asteroids to squeeze out carbonaceous chondrites, in fact the earth would have to be covered and this would most certainly be detectable if it happened. Also the timing and size of the asteroids would have to be accurate because volcanoes would have to cease from being so active that the asteroids would avoid being buried in lava and the size is important too! Too big and the asteroids would boil up the oceans!

So did the earth’s oceans come from asteroids? Clearly, not! It was a last-ditch effort to find something in the universe to rescue their hypothesis that could deliver water to the earth in order to create the oceans as icy comets were discounted because of new direct data! It’s time they change their framework to intelligent design, namely God!

How Do We Know Our Solar System Is Young?

One of the most accepted hypothesis or theories in evolutionary science claim our solar system formed about 4.6 billion years ago. Many theories have been built around this assumption in order to make predictions of what is out there in space. On the other hand, the Biblical account implies a much younger solar system. Is there evidence for a young solar system? The answer is, “yes!” Evolutionary scientists call it a mystery while creation scientists call it a confirmation.

The old age framework claims an accretion disk appeared which gravity used to flatten into a spinning disk.  From this disk over millions of years they claim, gravity caused planets to form and other objects. Once it reached a certain level or point, the excess gas and dust dissipated and cleared away, leaving the solar system as we observe it today.

The disk, also known as a nebula then becomes the source from which everything in our solar system was formed. However as science advances, evidence for a young solar system has been causing problems with this hypothesis.  Chemical-change is a good indicator on how old an object is.  The Cassini mission with its probe has been one of the amazing tools for discovering what is going on in our solar system!

For one thing, Scientists who have been modelling Titan’s atmosphere have made calculations using old-age assumptions concluded that no methane should be present on Titan rather it should have been used up in the first tens of millions of years of the moon’s history. There is some replenishment going on with the methane which is evaporating off Titan’s surface but not enough to account for the amount detected by the Cassini probe.  There is a lot of chemical-changing activity going on which is why evolutionary scientists were surprised to find so much methane on Titan. Also, methane escaping Titan’s thick atmosphere into space lowers the ten million year range as well.

The old-age assumption has encountered other problems with evidence for a young solar system.  Such as our sun, where in the old-age model suggests 30 percent less of the total energy the sun gave out than it is now. This causes a problem with evolutionary expectations on how life began on earth because with 30 percent less energy being giving out by the sun, the earth would be like an ice-ball, thus making it impossible for earth to create or sustain life. This is known as the faint young Sun paradox.

On a moon of Jupiter called Io, evolutionary scientists discovered another problem with their old-age assumption.  Io has an amazing array of many volcanoes that are much more active than Earth’s volcanoes. The heat given off by these particular volcanoes is much more than what Earth is producing. There was an expectation of volcanic activity with some heat but nowhere near the extent that was discovered because of the old-age assumption.

As a result, two more assumptions have been invented to explain the falsification of the new discovery. One is, the interior of Io and the amount of heat generated by all the volcanoes and the other is massive tidal forces due to gravity from Jupiter that squeeze Io and cause its shape to oscillate, generating heat inside Io. However, the geology of Io is not a mystery and is more logical when thinking in terms of youthfulness because the processes work well if the heat present after Io’s creation is simply used up and dissipates over several thousand years!

These are just a few examples on how we know our solar system is young rather than billions of years old. We observed, chemical-change on Titan that resembles its youthfulness, the sun being too cool to sustain life, and the heat from Io is another indicator. What an amazing solar system that was designed by God where we live in today!

Comets Delivering Water To Earth?

There are many problems with Astrobiology, in fact one could question its science vitality with the expansion of knowledge. Like in any false religion, they take a particular part of Scripture out of context and then build a whole doctrine around it.  As a result, they invent rescue explanations in order to preserve the doctrine. In Astrobiology, we see that also with the invented notion of  comets at one point in time delivering water to earth.

After many comets falsifying their story, one comet was discovered to have a D/H ratio that closely resembled the oceans on earth. It was hailed as a confirmation on their hypothesis. Astrobiology Magazine writes…

“However, the new results also raise new questions. Until now, scientists assumed that the distance of a body’s origin from the Sun correlated to the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio in its water. The farther away this origin lies from the Sun, the larger this ratio should be. With a “birth place” within the Kuiper belt and thus well beyond the orbit of Neptune, Hartley 2, however, seems to violate this rule.”

“Either the comet originated in greater proximity to the Sun than we thought”, says Hartogh, “or the current assumptions on the distribution of deuterium have to be reconsidered.” And maybe Hartley 2 is a so-called Trojan that originated close to Jupiter and could never overcome its gravitational pull.”

While the discovery raises more questions than answers, does one comet among many others confirm their hypothesis? No! Only if you assume it to be true in the first place  then any tiny indication would be a confirmation. And yes, they are also trying to justify using taxpayers money for this particular research in tough economic times. So why are secular scientists searching for water on comets? After all, they reject the Bible that the earth was formed out of water and by water, creating a story that suggests dust baked from the sun clumped together over a massive amount of time that eventually formed the planet.

Then hot lava dominated the surface making it impossible for liquid water to exist. Tests also have been done on the dust story in the lab but those tests have failed to produce evidence for their formation of planets. So what credible evidence is there? None, it’s the only popular story secular scientists have came come up with that avoids special creation.

This is why there is a huge interest among planetary scientists to find water on comets. It needs to show how the earth became habitable for life that doesn’t conflict with its other story. But this discovery of one comet and the belief that comets delivered water to earth does in fact open a can of worms. Planetary scientists have to invent some sort of explanation on how comets were careful enough in not destroying the earth’s atmosphere,  or how oceans remained intact when huge comets hit the earth.

All this speculation doesn’t really expand any knowledge in science. Its not observable (we can go back in time to watch the event happen nor are they any eyewitness reports), its not testable nor repeatable but rather it contains nothing more than mere speculation. One comet certainly out of many doesn’t verify it either.

Mercury Mission Is Jaw Dropping

The innermost and smallest planet in the Solar System which orbits the sun slightly under 88 days has been the focus of many articles for Messenger’s amazing data collecting mission. Finding things that no theorist would have ever predicted. In fact, last March the mission revealed some eye-popping data that has sent many of them back to the drawing board. Mercury is different from what has been described in the textbooks.

In last week’s journal of science, strange hollows were discovered on Mercury. Could this be something like on Mars which has similar features? It has been speculated that Mars features were a consequence of evaporating carbon dioxide ice. But there is no carbon dioxide ice on Mercury, so what is it? Evidence of volcanism! The strange hollows have been observed with three flybys, and the extent of them exceeded expectations, described by the BBC as having enough lava to cover Washington DC by 26,000 km.

Space.com says…

“Based on the way this lava apparently eroded the underlying surface, the researchers suggest it rushed out rapidly. We can’t say if it took 2.7 days or 15 years or any exact time from orbit, but it wasn’t hundreds of millions of years,” Head added.

Mercury’s northern high latitudes had largely escaped view until now. When we flew by Mercury the first time with Mariner 10, we weren’t really sure if volcanism caused these smooth plains,” Head told SPACE.com. Now we’re in orbit with Messenger, we’re up close and personal, just going around and around and really building up our picture of Mercury.”

What is strange about this observation when it comes to the old age framework, why would very massive volcanism turn on like that, last a few short years, and then stop and then remain unchanged for billions of years?

One of the reasons there is a Mercury mission is trying to solve, it’s magnetic field mystery. Back in the 1970s, scientists were surprised to find that Mercury had one because with the “dynamo theory” it should have frozen out long ago. It suggested that Mercury was younger than billions of years. Mercury’s magnetic field is unable to provide protection from the solar wind.

Science daily writes…

“Only six months into its Mercury orbit, the tiny MESSENGER spacecraft has shown scientists that Mercury doesn’t conform to theory. Its surface material composition differs in important ways from both those of the other terrestrial planets and expectations prior to the MESSENGER mission, calling into question current theories for Mercury’s formation. Its magnetic field is unlike any other in the Solar System, and there are huge expanses of volcanic plains surrounding the north polar region of the planet and cover more than 6% of Mercury’s surface…. Theorists need to go back to the drawing board on Mercury’s formation,” remarked the lead author of one of the papers, Carnegie’s Larry Nittler. “Most previous ideas about Mercury’s chemistry are inconsistent with what we have actually measured on the planet’s surface.”

While some claim planetary scientists enjoy surprises for job security reasons, and designing a spacecraft to be able to gather data is quite a feat, the old-age framework has been one of the reasons why observations are not matching up with theories. Increasing complexity for a theory is never good, it often leads to telling a story and passing it off as better than empirical data. Suggesting bursts of massive lava all over the north, then shut off for billions of years, while things are being hollowed out in a process that could still be ongoing today, is forcing the data into the framework.

While suggesting that a planet is smaller than Titan is able to keep an iron core liquid long enough so that a global magnetic field can survive.  As a result of this complexity, they have to create a planet with elements that were believed not possible to exist so close to the sun, but then keep vast deposits of it intact after billions of years of solar heat and bombardment. Their story telling is not nearly as good as the data itself. The Mercury is a great mission so far and it’s making clearer rather than more complex that it is younger (thousands of years) and designed by a Creator, namely God!

Should There Be Higher Expectations With Space Exploration?

While some evolutionary scientists are working on inventing various scenarios on how they view nature evolving which is impossible to confirm considering not one of these scientists were able to observe the past in which they are studying. For example, birds have been researched over many years to answer a basic question, why do they exist in the evolutionary framework?

From an evolutionist standpoint, a new theory on the origin of birds has been created to answer the basic question. Although it’s not the correct usage of the term ‘theory’ but rather an “hypothesis” so what is their reasoning? According to the new ‘theory’ in Physorg, “Scientist cites enlarged skeletal muscles as reason birds exist.” In other words, this scientist is suggesting that birds have strong muscles; therefore, these amazing creatures must have evolved.  Circular reasoning! Waste of public money!

Now what about these ‘theories’ explaining things like our solar system? Have you ever had a career where management was consistently wrong but yet still considered experts? If management is consistently wrong, nothing could be built or produced. This is not to say there might be efficiency issues which is another subject, but accomplishing products or services to remain in business.

When it comes to exploring space, planetary scientists have a track record of consistently getting it wrong with their various ‘theories’. Unlike Darwinian evolution where one cannot explore the past to verify their speculations, it all depends how popular their explanation is among other scientists, but planetary scientists have been able to do some direct observing that has tested their ‘theories’ which have failed in more ways than one. This is not to say things like their orbital mechanics are a failure, but on the contrary, it’s been quite amazing to say the least. This part of science is not in question, because this particular part of it does in fact enhance knowledge!

Missions have revealed quite often a completely different reality than from what scientists have told the public they expected to discover from their beliefs in planetary evolution. While keeping the basic ‘theories’ intact which was the problem in the first place for the falsifications, they instead created major revisions with Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, comets, asteroids, and most of the moons of the solar system! This is why direct observation is so important and vastly superior over speculation.

Here are a few examples…

Saturn’s geysering moon Enceladus which data has been confirming creationism is now known for its amazing performances.  The Cassini spacecraft recently made another pass through the geysers at close range and sampled some of the particles. More data of sodium and potassium was discovered which was then used to hype up the mission by speculation about life. However, there is something that was not hyped up to the public with new data coming from Cassini. The challenge of old age assumptions with Enceladus has become a major obstacle in fitting in the data.

Nicholas Altobelli quoted in science daily says, “Enceladus is a tiny icy moon located in a region of the outer Solar System where no liquid water was expected to exist, because of its large distance from the Sun.”   Not only that, but another challenge to the idea of tides having an impact on creating the heat on the moon for billions of years which one expert in here referred to a long time ago. A new study was published in Icarus which was conducted by Chin and Nimmo who calculated that the obliquity tides do not significantly heat Enceladus. Any heating would be around a thousand times too small as a heat source for the moon’s powerful geysers.

Not long ago, scientists were telling the public at large that comets nothing more than dirty snowballs from the pristine outer reaches of the solar system nudged in toward the sun by passing stars. But direct observations have proven otherwise! Missions that included Halley, Borrely, and Tempel, have shown there are minerals that require high temperatures for their formation, calling for radical revisions of ‘theories’.  Now enter Comet Hartley 2, visited last November on Deep Impact’s extended mission, nicknamed EPOXI.  Natalie Wolchover’s headline on Live Science says it all: “Quirky Comet Hartley” which confounds every popular evolutionary idea.

The question is, should the public hold to higher expectations with these so-called experts with space exploration? After all they are spending billions of dollars for this research and look at the results they are getting. This is not to say scientific discovery is bad in fact it’s good because it brings reality back over speculation. The money was well worth spent on the fabulous jobs the techs have been doing for bringing to earth, in our lifetimes, a highly impressive treasure of new data about the solar system.  This includes those who have worked hard for years to save the delicate particles from the Genesis mission! And look at the Cassini mission, its original intent is long since complete and yet it’s still going strong with collecting amazing data!