More Conformation Verifying Soft Tissue In Fossils

When original dinosaur protein was discovered, it was met with skepticism because of the rate of decay, speculation of contamination was created in order to counter such a discovery. Those days have past as verification after verification have clearly refuted such an idea. In fact, a more recent study that consisted of ten universes claiming that the soft tissue found in the fossil record is, primordial.

In the abstract in PLoS

“Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development.

“Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a ‘preservation motif’, and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival. Now evolutionary researchers have the unduly task of setting out how proteins could last 65 million years.” 

Like every protein, Collagen, is a form of elongated fibrils, which are mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendon, ligament and skin, and is also found to be in abundance in bone, and blood vessels. The human body contains 20 percent of collagen which plays a very important role in keeping the human body together. So did this study produce any evidence for proteins lasting even 10 or 20 million years? No! It’s just assumed that it happened to have lasted 65 million years because if they concede (allowing to follow the evidence where it may lead) that soft tissues are biologically unable to withstand decay long enough for that enormous time frame, they would be indirectly conceding to young-earth creationism so in turn, they label this falsification of soft tissue as a conformation for evolution. It’s the only ‘theory’ in science that claims falsifications are verification.

So a hypothetical reality is invoked over and over again in the paper where you can see them making assumptions by claiming a “geologic time” instead of actually testing it! Evolution always sounds better with hypothetical realities than actual observations. Again I ask, how can a story based on an untested scenario be considered science? The fact of the matter is, soft tissue is an observation that reveals a young earth not billions of years old!

The Cell’s Delivery System In Your Body

Whenever a manufacture or you needs a package to be shipped, a key component on getting the package to the right locality is a zip code. Like a city or town, the cell has information that needs to be sent from place to place.  In order for this vital information to the right locality a molecular tag is used on a transport vehicle that acts just like a zip code.

Richard Robinson is a freelance science writer who wrote in the peer-reviewed, open-access science journal PLoS Biology says

“Proteins are the workhorses of the cell, but to get the most work out of them, they need to be in the right place.  In neurons, for example, proteins needed at axons differ from those needed at dendrites, while in budding yeast cells, the daughter cell needs proteins the mother cell does not.  In each case, one strategy for making sure a protein gets where it belongs is to shuttle its messenger RNA to the right spot before translating it.”

“The destination for such an mRNA is encoded in a set of so-called “zipcode” elements, which loop out of the RNA string to link up with RNA-binding proteins.  In yeast, these proteins join up with a myosin motor that taxis the complex to the encoded location. “

It is interesting to note, Robinson uses the word “zip code” five times in his description of recent this discovery about the process. The players in this amazing discovery is the messenger RNA which contains coded instructions for a molecular machine but in order for it to deliver the goods to the correct location that is required,  elements (zip code) are attached to the mRNA that give it instructions on where it needs to go.

Now who sorts the mail?  Who makes sure the zip code is present? Robinson’s synopsis discussed goes further into detail with the new finding…

“Based on their results, the authors propose a two-step model of transport complex formation.  Within the nucleus, She2p binds to the mRNA as it is transcribed, and then shuttles it to the cytoplasm.  She2p binds loosely and promiscuously, though, catching up mRNAs both with and without zipcodes.  Once in the cytoplasm, She3p joins on, tightening the grip on mRNAs that contain zipcodes while booting out those without them.  With the myosin motor attached to She3p, the complex motors off to its destination elsewhere in the cell.”

“The results in this study indicate that quality control in mRNA transport relies on a reciprocal action: the complex proteins together ensure that only those mRNAs with a destination tag are incorporated into the transport complex, and the mRNA, by binding to each of the proteins in the complex, ensures that all are on board before the journey starts.”

What we have here is one protein binding to the parcel inside the nucleus and takes it outside, where the other protein (She3p) recognizes its counterpart, checks the zip code. Without this specialize quality control for this delivery service, “the ability of the RNA–protein complex to reach its destination was impaired.”

Quite amazing, let me remind my readers, evolutionary theory contributes nothing to this scientific discovery.  Evolutionary theory only contributes to a story like about primordial soup supposedly creating life. Then they makes a big deal when they experiment and have a simple chemical reaction occur, acting as though it had fulfilled all the requirements for life. But after that, reality sets in and the experiment shows no process for getting the molecules where they are needed. That includes no quality control processes nor inspections, or checks and balances, no feedback, no networks. What always happens in this situation? Entropy! No matter what the evolutionary story suggests it’s not above the law of entropy!

Discovering More Parts On Life’s Rotary Engine

One of the most important if not thee important parts of our bodies which includes all other living things as well is this amazing enzyme called ATP synthase which is the world’s tiniest rotary motor! Without it, and its function life could not exist.  ATP is designed to provide usable energy for cellular machines. Its protein machines power almost everything that goes on inside living cells, including manufacturing DNA, RNA, and proteins, clean-up of debris, and transporting chemicals into, out of, and within cells. Other fuel sources is not able to provide power for these cellular protein machines for the same reasons that oil, or sunlight will not power a gasoline engine.

Logical thinking and common sense about an automobile engine leads us to think that only a clever person (with mind and will) could make this particular machine that is able to convert energy from one form to another for the purpose of moving a car. The machine shows orderly, specified proportions which includes a very clever use of interdependent parts that are the right size, shape and strength to work together for an overall purpose.

Three European scientists, reporting in PNAS cleverly used quantum mechanical approaches to study the amazing enzyme, ATP where they were able to analyze the energy flow during production of ATP in the beta subunits. The alpha subunit rotates like a waterwheel turning a camshaft called the gamma subunit. The authors were able to discover two transition states within the 120° motion that favor the reaction one way, like a ratchet. “These two TSs [transition states] are concluded crucial for ATP synthesis,” they said.

They found that as the enzyme progresses into these states, energy barriers are set up that block the reverse direction, just like a ratchet on a tool. The authors also noted how difficult its getting in studying the ATP, “The complex function of ATP synthase makes this enzyme special compared to many other enzymes and makes computational investigation challenging,” they said.

Many other researchers study the ATP, and a full understanding of the reaction mechanism awaits its discovery in the future, but the authors felt “we have shown how the positions of alpha-S344 and alpha-R373 [two amino acid residues in the active site] may drastically influence the rate and, in this way, attenuate the reversal of these reaction steps.”

It’s no accident that this amazing and highly advanced tiny rotary machine essential to all living things resembles machines produced by intelligence! Even “point mutations of alpha-S347Q and alpha-S347A have dramatic effects on ATP synthase function both for synthesis and hydrolysis.” For the most part evolution wasn’t even mentioned but was mentioned in passing with the claim of learning more about it. Learning about what is happening in the real world is good science which confirms God’s word but attaching a story about evolution to it, doesn’t reveal any light but creates unnecessary speculation.

Bacteria Experiment Fails Evolutionary Expectations

Mutations are a significance importance for demonstrating how evolution works in nature. They play a role in bacterial adaptation and transformation to changing environments. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is an example and often times used as evolution in action. Mutations, some of which use information from other bacteria enable the organism to survive exposure to various antibiotics, but with a cost. This is known as antagonistic pleiotropy. The mutant bacteria suffers a loss or reduction of pre-existing activities such as regulatory, or transport systems.

Peter A. Lind, Otto G. Berg, and Dan I. Andersson from Uppsala University conducted an experiment on Salmonella bacterium which was published recently in Science

“A total of 126 random base-pair substitutions were engineered into the rpsT and rplA genes, encoding the ribosomal proteins S20 and L1, respectively (22). These two proteins are nonessential, but deletion mutants lacking either of these ribosomal proteins have severely reduced fitness.”

“Thus, putative mutational effects on fitness can be measured over a large range, and the fitness of complete loss-of-function mutations is known and is larger than zero. We used bacterial growth rate to measure the fitness effects of the mutations. The involvement of ribosomal proteins in translation and the direct relation of translation rates to exponential growth rates (23) ensure that fitness effects will be directly correlated to the quality and quantity of available ribosomes.”

The scientists had the flexibility to insert mutations in any area along the length of the genome. The results surprised these evolutionary scientists and others because it caused a reduction in fitness rather than an increase which evolution requires. It’s similar to the fruit fly experiment which took 35 years.

“These small fitness costs suggest that the fitness constraints on the mRNA for the two ribosomal protein genes are highly conserved between related bacterial species and that this functional conservation is largely independent of codon usage.”

This confirms the creationist model which predicts life staying relatively the same (variants within a kind) or a downward trend as the result of mutation activity.  Evolutionary explanations lack the ability (despite declaring as a fact) to provide evidence for a genetic mechanism that accounts for the origin or expansion of biological systems which is why their experiments produce falsifications rather than opening a pathway to new information.  However, researching how mutations work play a vital role for understanding diseases and how to combat its effect on people to improve the quality of life. This is where science will be more successful.