Is Antibiotic Resistance Proof of Evolution?

Remember when you were in high school or perhaps you are currently in high school as we speak where you have learned about antibiotic resistance? The teacher would allude to this being evolution in action. Certainly in debates this is often time alluded to as evidence for evolution.

In the medical field, antibiotic resistance in some areas have baffled some doctors because the bacteria would respond so quickly, sometimes within the first year or so. Was this evolution and is evolution moving more quickly than previously thought?

Creationists have debated for years that bacteria already have resistance built-in their systems, something has been also admitted by evolutionists…

 “One of the most common evidences used in textbooks to support evolution is antibiotic resistance in bacteria. However, the marvelous ability of bacteria to survive against antibiotics does not support the idea of progressiveevolution at all. Public school textbooks claim that bacteria’s sophisticated capacity to change—which appears to be built into their systems—supports the claim that molecules can change into completely different kinds of creatures, like mosquitoes, mushrooms, and men—despite the fact that these changes require the addition of completely different kinds of genetic information.”

The textbook authors recognize that the resistance is already present in the bacterial population (Fig. 15.5) and then claim that selection for resistant bacteria in a population is direct evidence for evolution. Selecting for something that is already present does not provide support for the information-gaining change required for evolution. Students are left with a confused understanding of evolution and are expected to equate observed changes in bacteria with the conversion of one kind into another.” –Answers in Genesis, May 2007 and January 2009. 

In 2012, antibiotic resistance was confirmed again as a ancient trait because it was discovered in bacteria from an isolated cave in New Mexico, many feet underground.

“A growing body of evidence implicates environmental organisms as reservoirs of these resistance genes; however, the role of anthropogenic use of antibiotics in the emergence of these genes is controversial. (*because it goes against what has been taught as evidence for evolution – *emphasis mine) We report a screen of a sample of the culturable microbiome of Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico, in a region of the cave that has been isolated for over 4 million years. We report that, like surface microbes, these bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics; some strains were resistant to 14 different commercially available antibiotics. … This supports a growing understanding that antibiotic resistance is natural, ancient, and hard-wired in the microbial pangenome.”

Moreover there was research conducted recently which uncovered a tribe of humans known as Yanomami people who live in a remote region of Venezuela. These people haven’t been in contact with the outside world, yet…it was discovered that these people have bacteria that already had antibiotic resistance genes—including the ability to fight synthetic antibiotics!

In Science Magazine

“The medical team’s interviews with these Yanomami villagers found they were never given drugs or exposed to food or water with antibiotics. Instead, Dantas suggests that the Yanomami gut bacteria have evolved an armory of methods to fight a wide range of toxins that threaten them—just as our ancestors and other primates have done to fight dangerous microbes. For example, the Yanomami bacteria may already have encountered toxins that occur naturally in their environment that are similar in molecular structure to modern antibiotics, but have yet to be discovered by scientists. Or, gut bacteria in humans have evolved a generalized mechanism for detecting certain features shared by all antibiotics—including the synthetic ones designed by scientists—and so can mount a defense against new threats.”

The discovery is troubling because it suggests that “antibiotic resistance is ancient, diverse, and astonishingly widespread in nature—including within our own bodies,” says anthropologist Christina Warinner of the University of Oklahoma in Norman, who is not a co-author. “Such findings and their implications explain why antibiotic resistance was so quick to develop after the introduction of therapeutic antibiotics, and why we today should be very concerned about the proper use and management of antibiotics in both clinical and agricultural contexts.”

This may explain why bacteria reacts so quickly and undermines a basic premise about evolution. One thing to note however, bacteria is not all bad, in fact we couldn’t exist without most bacteria. While it benefits us, it benefits them as well. This was no discovery for evolution but increased knowledge on how bacteria works…:)

Microbiology Reveals Amazing Specified Cell Operations

When I was a child in the sixth grade, I watching and listening in school to my cousin on TV, he was giving a lecture on the microscopic world. It had inspired me to get my first microscope. I began to read books at that age on one-cell animals, and took various samples around my area to view with new microscope. Things have changed a lot since then, a microscope no longer does the cell justice anymore, it only shows a very tiny fraction of what is going on.

New research papers have been popping up all over in the science journals that detail astounding things going on in the microscopic world.  Do you enjoy having a healthy heart, brain and pancreas? If you do, you can thanks your sodium channels for their health! They regulate a wide range of physiological activities and also when mutations are in the voltage-gated sodium channels causes heath problems according to the paper which was published in science like “epilepsy, migraine headaches, heart rhythm disturbances, periodic paralysis, and some pain syndromes.”

Science daily outlines what sodium channels as researchers discovered a way to obtain a high resolution of the “crystal structure showing all of the atoms of this complex protein molecule.”

“Sodium channels are pores in the membranes of excitable cells — such as brain nerve cells or beating heart cells — that emit electrical signals. Sodium channels selectively open and close to allow the passage of millions of tiny charged particles across the cell membrane. The gated flow of sodium ions generates tiny amounts of electrical current.”

Quite amazing! Have you ever heard of electric eels? I’m sure most of you have, but what about electric bacteria? Electrical properties of cells was the focus of Harvard researchers that was published in science

“Bacterial membrane potential provides a major component of the driving force for oxidative phosphorylation, membrane transport, and flagellar motion. Yet this voltage is inaccessible to techniques of conventional electrophysiology, owing to the small size of bacteria and the presence of a cell wall. Little is known about the electrophysiology of bacteria at the level of single cells.”

So they took a looked at E. coli bacteria and noticed it was producing electrical spikes at a rate of about one per second.  The electrical charge is generated by ion channels in the membrane that create electrical gradients, working against the natural tendency of charges to cancel out.  Research suspect that the bacteria is electrically regulated, that must organize their active transport mechanisms as a unit. Regulation response like this generally known in higher organisms, like electric eels and humans, but this new data has researchers rethinking some of the tenets of neuronal electrophysiology concerning bacteria.

In another publication, it says DNA has its own orchestra, RNA polymerase II molecules are like musicians waiting for their cue at the start sites that have developmentally controlled genes that are waiting for the go ahead so they can execute their part in the genomic symphony. The medical researchers discovered a Super Elongation Complex (SEC), that helps give RNA polymerases the correct beat to start transcribing the gene. This quick start reduces a lot of required steps in the process and also always cells to react quickly to the signals. Using the orchestra metaphor, researchers wrote, “Transcriptional control by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a tightly orchestrated, multistep process that requires the concerted action of a large number of players to successfully transcribe the full length of genes.” 

The cellular world continues to astound and it is interesting to note in these various articles, Many of them talk about how parts are “highly conserved” which means unevolved with their ‘theory’ from bacteria to humans. It is not surprising there is no explanation on how this could have emerged by chance without the operations falling apart in the process of being built without destroying the cell. Evolutionists will have to restort what it does best and that is, one comes up with a story for an explanation that the rest agree with, such as simpler cells must have existed and that somehow these cells obtained information that is open to major changes with its critical and specified operations because the ones we are observing now, are not.

Things Are Starting To Look Good For Viruses

Most of the time when someone mentions a virus, we think of things like colds or flu or just diseases in general but not all are bad in fact, the human body contains trillions of them. So there must be some good ones, right? Researchers at the University of British Columbia and Washington University are beginning to explore more of the human virome and here is what they have discovered so far…

“In the past decade, scientists have come to appreciate the vast bacterial world inside the human body.  They have learned that it plays a role in regulating the energy we take in from food, primes the immune system, and performs a variety of other functions that help maintain our health. Now, researchers are gaining similar respect for the viruses we carry around.”

Surprised? There are viruses that have very important functions which also have a very positive impact on our health! Many of our internal viruses are bacteriophages that invade and kill bacteria. This puts the brakes on bacterial infections. For every one bacterium, there are one hundred viruses, Pennisi wrote. The number of virus species identified in stool samples of healthy adults ranged from 52 to 2773.

People who remain on the same diets, the viral community remains stable over the course of the year unless there is a change in diet then the viromes will change. We are full of all kinds of viruses but we have yet to discover all what they actually do. This is an amazing part of science because learning more about the functions of viruses which have a very important impact on what’s going on in our bodies! It’s not enough to know your bacteria; you have to know the viruses that interact with them.

Viruses are incredibly well designed.  Some bacteriophages look like spaceship capsules with legs and all.  Scientists have discovered back in 2004, that some of these viruses have shells like hard plastic and in 2007-08 discovered that these viruses also pack their DNA into their capsids with motors generating remarkable force, in an orderly manner.  They are also extremely effective in finding their target cells, inserting their DNA, and commandeering the genetic machinery to make copies of themselves!

It is interesting to note, evolutionists are a bit puzzled on what to do with viruses in the scheme of the story because they are not considered transitional forms between molecules and life. The modern intelligent design movement would predict functions from the viruses but would be hard pressed to explain harmful ones. On the other hand, biblical creationism would be able to explain, all the viruses were originally designed good but some became harmful after the fall of Adam!

This research will open doors to answering questions like, were viruses intended to be regulators of bacteria?  Perhaps they were designed in order to send information to the body about new environments, and were equipped to copy themselves to spread the word so that the body could be prepared. This has the potential to dramatically change our understanding of nature in a very big way! In the future, one can expect amazing things to be discovered about these tiny, mysterious machines which are starting to look not that bad after all!

Bacteria No Longer Considered A Simple Lower Life Form

Once thought of as these simple life forms that was linked to the earliest life forms which supposedly evolved into more complex animals that excited researchers who wanted to reveal the origins of life but as the years went by scientists have been uncovering astounding amount of complex features with these one-cell animals.

New “bacterial complexity” has been recently discovered! Once thought of to be a rarity or an exception to the rule but this process found not only in more complex animals like the eukaryotes but it’s common in bacteria as well!

Science Daily calls this discovery a dawning of a new age in bacteria research…

“Protein acetylation is a molecular reaction inside the cell. It modifies and thus affects the function of proteins, including the molecular machinery responsible for turning genes on or off. Bacteria make up one of the three domains of life. The other two domains are archaea (single-cell organisms distinct from bacteria) and eukaryotes (which include plants and animals). Bacteria evolved before eukaryotes, but they are not as primitive as once thought.

“Bacteria have long been considered simple relatives of eukaryotes,” Wolfe and colleagues wrote. “Obviously, this misperception must be modified.” For example, protein acetylation historically had been considered mostly a eukaryotic phenomenon. But recent research indicates that acetylation also has a broad impact on bacterial physiology.”

“There is a whole process going on that we have been blind to,” Wolfe said.”

Patrick Forterre and Simonetta Gribaldo of the Pasteur Institute was quoted in PNAS as saying, “we should definitely stop thinking of bacteria in terms of simple ‘lower’ organisms.” So what does this new modification consist of that explains “simple” prokaryotes and their supposedly more-evolved superiors, the eukaryotes?

“For example, they imply a specific association between a bacterium and an archaeon for which there are no examples in nature, and assume a very unlikely process where all of the genes of the bacterial  host coding for informational proteins would have been replaced by those of the archaeal symbiont.”

Here is a classic case of storytelling, they make this assumption that evolution is true, observe a fact, then with no examples in nature force the data into the framework by inventing a story on how it evolved which becomes irrelevant in the future with new discoveries. When one makes predictions blindly (especially complex ones) in the dark about nature, it eventually ends up falsified. It’s a disservice to the public who gives their hard earned money in terms of billions of dollars for research. Now learning how things work is good science and this is what the focus should be on rather than science fiction stories. I love reading the latest discoveries which verifies God’s Word!