In part one of this series, the philosophy of science along with defining information, and its use. Also, the difference between Christians getting their philosophy of life from the Bible and evolutionists who get their philosophy of life from the data. Along with merging historical science with operational science which is not logical! And lastly, part one covered the laws of thermodynamics.
Philosopher of science, David Hull once said…
“Science is not as empirical as many scientists seem to think it is. Unobserved and even unobservable, entities play an important part in it. Science is not just the making of observations: it is making inferences on the basis of observations within the framework of a theory.”
In part two, we are going to go more in-depth on using science to detect intelligence as the source of the creation and the mindless process known as evolution. This is not a new revelation because even secular researchers know that science has revealed nature as being designed but go out of their way trying to disprove it like biologist Richard Dawkins, a well-known atheist who for years has been in denial about the existence of God.
In the debate on whether or not nature was designed, there is a fallacy which always comes up and is often times used…In a recent conference on human evolution, Anthropologist, Bruce Latimer and Alan Mann from Princeton express their worldview (here and here) by claiming the human body is a product of poor design, thus in their minds evolution is doing it all!
“Bad backs, dangerous childbirths, sore feet and wisdom teeth pains are among the many ailments humans face from evolution, researchers say.
“In an evolutionary sense, humans are by far the most successful primates on the planet, with a world population close to 7 billion. Humanity owes this success to a number of well-known adaptations, such as large, complex brains and walking upright on two feet. However, there are downsides to these advances as well.”
Latimer explains his argument against intelligent design while favoring evolution…
“If an engineer were given the task to design the human body, he or she would never have done it the way humans have evolved,” Latimer said. “Unfortunately, we can’t go back to walking on four feet. We’ve undergone too much evolutionary change for that—and it is not the answer to our problems.”
Firstly, Latimer uses petty arguments in his worldview when defending evolution such as “sore feet” which can be caused by a variety of things rather than a poor design. Secondly, his argument consists of the claim that if a human designer (rather than just implying God) created all things, the creation would be perfectly designed in all aspects so therefore it is implied by Latimer that neither man nor God could have been the creator. However, this is not the case and since he used human engineering as an example, this will be addressed. Human engineers do not create perfect machinery, nor perfect building structures, nor anything else that would be considered perfect for that matter in the realm of engineering!
Rather such things like the machinery which was built by human intelligence eventually wears out over time (causing problems with normal functions) thus, there is a need for a replacement. And certainly these human-made machines are far from being a perfect design otherwise, there would be no need for advancements which are better than previous built designs! Also, engineers do not create other things perfect like cars either. As science progresses, these designs of cars also improve over time! Since human engineering has flaws with room for improvements, it doesn’t mean the machinery itself was not intelligently designed as Latimer suggests! And lastly, in the modern intelligent design movement, they do not advocate perfect designs as proof neither does creationism.
Here is what their position is…
“It may well be that the designer chose to create an “optimum design” or a “robust and adaptable design” rather than a “perfect design.” Perhaps some animals or creatures behave exactly the way they do to enhance the ecology in ways that we don’t know about. Perhaps the “apparent” destructive behavior of some animals provides other animals with an advantage in order to maintain balance in nature or even to change the proportions of the animal population.”
What the modern intelligent design movement believes to be proof…
“We infer design when we see that parts appear to be arranged for a purpose. The more parts that are arranged, and the more intricately they interact, the stronger is our confidence in design.”
So Latimer’s argument as well as Alan’s falls flat with the facts which reminds me of Shakespeare who once said, “What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason, how infinite in faulty, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action like an angel, in apprehension…how like a god.”
Atheist Richard Dawkins in his book, The Blind Watchmaker published in 1996…
“Natural selection is the blind watchmaker, blind because it does not see ahead, does not plan consequences, has no purpose in view. Yet the living results of natural selectioin overwhelmingly impress us with the appearance of design as if by a master watchmaker, impress us with the illusion of design and planning. The purpose of this book is to resolve the paradox to the satisfaction of the reader, and the purpose of this chapter is further to impress the reader with the power of the illusion of design.”
Without trying to deny design in nature while making a case for evolutionary causes about the human body, secular scientists as well as other scientists, marvel on how well the human body operates! Calling it “amazing” or “incredible.”
In 1980, Michael Denton, a molecular biologist dropped a bombshell on the scientific community when he wrote his controversial book called “Evolution: A Theory In Crisis” where he says that new discoveries in biology are opening up new levels of detail concerning the operation of the human body and are revealing more precise functioning than ever imagined. Much like we see today! Dr. Charles Thaxton in the 1990s argued for intelligent design of the human body. His argument was called the principle of uniform experience.
Years later in 2008, “The Cells Design” by Fazale Rana was published. Although the book claims to be a breakthrough for the case of design, it uses the same principle of uniform experience. The research in the book is quite remarkable and very educational along with excellent analysis which is well worth the read!
To give an idea on what this principle of uniform experience is about, one needs to look at the formation of a beautiful tapestry. First, one has to have a blueprint (information) for the tapestry. Second, one needs to decide which colors will be used and what pattern the colors will be used in. Third, one must pick out the type of fabric that will be used. This design can only be accomplished through intelligence, rather than randomly picked colors and fabrics, for they must coordinate and compliment each other. A mindless process cannot tell one color from the next or if the colors coordinate and compliment each other neither can it direct nature to come up with certain colors in order to accomplish it.
It is similar with the human body, which requires precise movement, coordination, and communication among our body’s cells! The human body is mostly made up with an estimate of 100 trillion cells! Every single cell, every fiber is loaded with activity! The human body is a very busy place, even when your sleeping as it always keeps building, renovating, reproducing, and growing. It converts one energy source into another while sending and receiving messages in a particular language that it can understand. It fights off intruders, and performs some of the most amazing balance acts known to man!
The human body is a highly advanced design, which requires various layers of organization to keep things running smoothly. Each cell is an irreducibly complex system where it requires several interacting components to be present and functioning at the same time. The removal of one or more of the components in a human cell causing the whole system to malfunction and die. In other words this is no room for the halfway point (or anything else in-between) concerning biology! Many cellular processes will not work unless every component is present and functioning.
Like every system in the universe, but unlike evolution, the human body winds down which is why we have upper age limits. Cells eventually wear out and die. The cells in our body will multiply, repair itself, but it will not keep on renewing our bodies forever! Typos in our DNA code known as mutations are killing us! Mutations are also linked to over 1,000 human diseases!
We obtain three mutations per cell division. An average cell can divide around 90 times which would give us an enormous about of mutations over time. Michael Lynch, a population geneticist who life’s work was measuring this stuff, in his paper published in PNAS 107:961-968, says that by the time we reach the age of 15, we obtain on average 6,000 mutations per cell. By the time we reach 60 years old, we obtain 40,000 mutations with our skin cells alone! Mutations Michael Lynch says, is the primary cause of aging and death.
The human body is one of the most amazing complex type of machinery known to man. Each part of the body has its own job,. The parts work together to keep the body alive much like the parts on a car which work together to keep it going! We have just scratched the surface on this subject, there is more amazing engineering that will be addressed.
To Be Continued…