Data Confirms: Pluto is not billions of years old

We are living in exciting times when it comes to space exploration! As predicted in this blog, Pluto would contain youthful features, just like a pattern of other discoveries through out our solar system which doesn’t match the billions of years assumption. Now scientists have put an upper limit on age at 100 million years but this doesn’t mean that Pluto is 100 million years old. Calculating a lower limit is an ongoing project for them so it will be interesting to see what they come up with.

It is highly unlikely that secular scientists will give up on the notion that Pluto is billions of years old. Even millions of years old is a problem for planetary evolution.

Let’s move on to some of the data which has been transmitted back so far from New Horizons. Principal investigator Alan Stern turns the explanation to the new findings over to co-investigator Spencer who says this about the data…

Closeup of Pluto

“The mountains seen, which are “quite spectacular,” are up to 11,000 feet high—incredibly tall for such a small body, rivaling the Sierra Nevada. Spencer also says that Pluto’s mountains were not created out of nitrogen ice, methane ice or carbon dioxide ice. “You just can’t make mountains out of that stuff.” Spencer thinks we are looking at bedrock in the picture posted above. 

Tidal heating has been used in other discoveries as the source for powering recent geological activity in places like Enceladus whose geysers are still active. Because without a power source, it would be impossible for geological activity to sustain itself over the course of billions of years especially in cold space pretty far from the sun. Like Enceladus, Pluto also has young features on its surface.

“Pluto is the first ice dwarf ever studied that does not orbit a gas giant like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus or Neptune. Bodies orbiting the gas giants experience gravity-driven tidal stresses, generating internal heat that can, in turn, drive geological activity.”

As predicted in my previous post, a team of secular scientists will be working on coming up with ideas on how Pluto could be billions of years old, and yet have a heat source that hasn’t frozen out yet despite it being small, with no chance of tidal heating, and is extremely far from the sun. In reality, their project of trying to fit it into billions of years (because that is what they believe not what the data is giving them) defies the laws of physics.

Not to overlook Pluto’s moon Charon which is half the size of Pluto circles each other in gravitational lockstep every 6.4 days. It also has some young feature, confirmation of youth rather than billions of years old.

In CBS news

“Originally, I thought Charon might be an ancient terrain covered in craters,” said Cathy Olkin, New Horizons deputy project scientist. “And so, Charon just blew our socks off when we had the new image today. We’ve just been thrilled. All morning, the team has just been abuzz, ‘look at this, look at that, oh my God that’s amazing!'” 

New Horizons was able to capture Charon which had surprised scientists because of the lack of impact craters. It is amazing, this whole 700+ million dollar space project is quite amazing. It’s going to get better as New Horizons continues to transmit data it gathered while flying by Pluto and its moons so stay tuned! :)

New Horizons Makes History With Pluto

After being under the gun to get the spacecraft built within a time frame that would cut the voyage to Pluto by four years, taking off in 2006, then traveling 9+ years in space over the course of more than 3 billion miles faster than any thing made before it, New Horizons makes history by exploring a planet never seen this close by mankind along with its five moons!

Cheers erupted as New Horizons began to communicate with Earth again after being silent for 22 hours because it was programmed to be totally focused on collecting data of Pluto as it flew by!  Currently, most of the data remains on the spacecraft and will take quite some time to transmit it all back to earth. The highest resolution taken so far of Pluto will be released sometime on Wednesday. What an amazing day, what an amazing accomplishment with this intelligently designed spacecraft!

Latest Pluto Image

Encounters like these always presented a challenge for those who believe the solar system is billions of years old. Many predictions have been made on that belief. Pluto is no different…

Once considered an icy, dead world, the planetoid has yielded signs of geological activity, with evidence of past and possibly present-day tectonics, or movements of its crust.”

“This is clearly a world where both geology and atmosphere climatology play a role,” said Alan Stern, New Horizons lead scientist, with the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He noted that it appears that nitrogen and methane snow fall on Pluto.

More challenges may include once the data has been transmitted back to Earth: atmospheric escape rates of molecules are found to be too rapid to sustain for billions of years making a confirmation for a younger Pluto than what is believed among secular scientists. This will in turn create a team of planetary scientists who will work hard to come up with something which would put it back to billions of years.

The measurements of Pluto’s atmosphere will be an interesting one especially for creationists. Another challenge that may present itself is…the data will not confirm the moons were formed by collision causing another team of scientists to come up with a way to preserve a popular idea using collision as a cause on how those moons had formed. Unlike Mars, they will be no search for life on Pluto, however, speculation may emerge about life on Pluto in its supposed very distant past, perhaps as a selling point to go to Pluto again. In any case, they don’t need to use a selling point like that, we ought to explore Pluto again, maybe next time send two probes: one that could go in orbit and another on the surface of Pluto!

We are certainly living in some amazing times with all this space exploration, thanks to the Lord :)

 

A Tribute To The MESSENGER Spacecraft

After thousands of orbits over a course of ten years, the Messenger Spacecraft is coming to an end, it’s scheduled to crash on April 30, 2015. It was an amazing leap of data (10 terabytes) of the planet, among its data was finding new discoveries and solving a mystery. The last mission being Mariner 10, was conducted in 1974 and it raised many questions while making some nice discoveries.

One of the biggest surprises was the discovery of hollows that ranged in various sizes…

Mercury

“Early in its primary orbital mission, MESSENGER discovered thousands of peculiar depressions at a variety of longitudes and latitudes, ranging in size from tens of meters to several kilometers across and tens of meters deep.”

“These features, given the name ‘hollows,’ were a major surprise, because while we had been thinking of Mercury as a relic—a planet that wasn’t really changing anymorehollows appear to be younger than the planet’s freshest impact craters. This finding suggests that Mercury is a planet whose surface is still evolving,” says MESSENGER Participating Scientist David Blewett, a geologist at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL).”

How does Mercury get its dark color? Messenger has discovered that since the planet is so close to the sun, that it gets hit quite often from objects in space like comets. The high-speed impacts create amorphous carbon with the darkness of pencil lead (graphite) and soot. Now this interesting if scientists can calculate how much soot is present on Mercury after supposedly 4.5 billion years. Brown University estimated that between 3 and 6 percent carbon after billions of years. Perhaps send another spacecraft to measure it and study the young craters and more. Most likely it wouldn’t match up with the planet being assumed at 4.5 billion years old.

Also, Mercury was considered non-active because of that assumed age, but Messenger has discovered quite the contrary.

MESSENGER Ten years have gone by very quickly, and Messenger will be missed, it was a great effort to build this spacecraft and have it complete its mission over a course of ten years. We look forward to July 14, when the probe “New Horizons” flies by Pluto while gathering data about this dwarf planet and its moons. Based on previous missions, there are going to be surprises that doesn’t fit into its assumed old age. Rather, Pluto is going to have some young features. New Horizons just recently took its first image of Pluto!  This will be exciting…:)

Mercury and Moon Display Their Youth

Evolutionary scientists some of which hate the use being described as “evolutionary” believe our solar system is 4.5 billion years old, and thus interpret the data within this framework, such as predicting eruptions occurring on Mercury 3.5 billion years ago. However, new discoveries from the Messenger spacecraft flying by Mercury have found compelling evidence of recent eruptions.

“The presence of explosive volcanism on Mercury is a little bit surprising,” says Laura Kerber from JPL

Even more surprising is the fact that Mercury’s activities are similar to those on the Moon as stated here from an email to Astrobiology Magazine.

“Both Mercury and the Moon are a lot smaller than the Earth, and so will have cooled more than Earth since their formation. For that reason, a lot of models would not predict volcanism within the last two billion years..” 

But what is even more surprising, that defies billions of years old, water was discovered on Mercury! No suggestion of life forms on Mercury in its supposed distance past, but a shocker for those who believe that the solar system is very old!

In the BBC

“This result was a little surprising, because sharp boundaries indicate that the volatile deposits at Mercury’s poles are geologically young,” said Dr Chabot.

She added: “One of the big questions we’ve been grappling with is ‘When did Mercury’s water ice deposits show up?’ Are they billions of years old, or were they emplaced only recently?

Understanding the age of these deposits has implications for understanding the delivery of water to all the terrestrial planets, including Earth.”

Overall, the images indicate that Mercury’s polar deposits either were delivered to the planet recently or are regularly restored at the surface through an ongoing process.

Since creation scientists as well as creationists like myself in general believe the solar system is young and not billion of years old, it’s is reasonable to conclude, there is a youthful process going on in Mercury. But one could suspect, a creation of stories about some sort of space delivery like some sort of unique asteroid which could never be observed nor confirmed that would explain such a youthful appearance to maintain its supposed old age.

They really have their work cut out for them this time in trying to create such a story in order to explain away Mercury’s youthful details so it can fit into their old age framework…

“It’s really hard to understand how an ocean could survive for billions of years inside something as small as Mimas.”  -New Scientist

It would make a lot more sense and more scientific without the need to try and fit the data into a particular framework where it doesn’t belong if they cease with the billions of years explanation!

An Ugly Theory Destroyed By A Beautiful Fact

Back in the late 1970’s, evidence for a young universe was very strong (and still is today) but this put secular scientists in a difficult position as National Geographic writes…

“In 1978, he learned in a talk by Princeton physicist Bob Dicke of a problem with the universe—it was too perfect. All sorts of factors, from the workings of atoms to the gravity holding stars together, seem too exquisitely fine-tuned for creating a cosmos in defiance of both rational explanation and what chance would predict.”

“One second after the big bang—and I’m pretty sure that is the example he used—the expansion rate had to be just right to an accuracy of 14 decimal places or our universe would look nothing like it does now.” Just a smidge more expansion and the universe would have blasted itself apart. A tiny bit less and it would have fallen in on itself. Instead it had unfolded just right, balanced on a universe-friendly knife-edge, seemingly for no reason.”

Secular Cosmology was in a major crisis, the evidence was leading towards a purpose which is in the direction of intelligence rather than some random act with no reason. And if it was a random act, then the universe should have been full of cosmic defects which it doesn’t have. This mean their theory wasn’t being endorse by the facts, rather the evidence is leading towards a young universe no older than 10,000 years old!

“In fact, these defects should have been so numerous and so massive that if they actually existed, the age of the universe “would turn out to be about 10,000 years,” Guth says, with a laugh. “This doesn’t turn out to be the case, scientifically.”

Guth knew the evidence could fit into the Biblical time frame but believed explanations (rather than science) were required to skew the evidence out of that direction. You see, science isn’t really disproving the Bible, science is not really at odds with the Bible, only those who reject the Biblical framework have that problem and thus use ‘science’ as a pretext to insert their illogical disbelief.

With a need to force the data into their illogical belief, Guth came up with a solution, one he thought would solve the flatness problem and the horizon problem. This solution was called, “inflation”  but it wasn’t easy at first because he came across his first dilemma and that was how to stop inflation once it got started!

In 1981, his inflation theory was falsified because the universe did not turn out to be smooth as predicted. But this ugly theory wasn’t about to die with a beautiful fact that falsified it, many caught on, producing even crazier ideas in order to keep it alive. These crazier ideas cannot be confirmed with normal science methods because they are out of the realm of reality as it invokes other universes.

There is no confirmation on more than one universe let alone many of them! Yet, this is where the theory of inflation has lead them because they deny the real evidence that is showing (as an estimate) the universe to be no older than 10,000 years old. Sounds more like something out of Hollywood rather than coming from scientists themselves.

But his imagination might win him a Nobel Prize award because it doesn’t allow scientists to follow the evidence rather it allows scientists to follow a fictional story that is fitted. It is one of the biggest bluffs of all time! But there is no way getting around the evidence, which does confirm the frame work of the Bible :)

Cassini Brings Forth More Evidence

In “The Grand Design” Hawking and Mlodinow, who are one of the greatest minds in atheism (evolution) place their central argument around this statement…

“Because the law of gravity and the quantum vacuum exist, therefore, the universe will create itself from nothing.”

Here is a translation of that…

“Because something and something else exists, therefore, some other thing will create itself from nothing.”

Scientists for the Cassini mission have found indirect evidence of a liquid ocean beneath its surface using gravity measurements that contained anomalies during the spacecraft’s flybys. The original paper downplays this possible discovery. But other publications hypes this up as a possible discovery for life!

BBC reports one of the scientists of the discovery saying this…

“I think Enceladus has gone to the top of the charts in terms of a place where there could be life.

“It’s got several of the things which you need for life – there’s certainly the presence of heat, there’s liquid water in this ocean, there’s organics and that type of chemistry going on.

“The only question is, has there been enough time for life to develop?”

In National Geographic

“The ocean lies between the moon’s rocky core and a layer of thick ice, and is estimated to be about the size of Lake Superior. That’s large for a moon that is only 310 miles (500 kilometers) in diameter and could fit within the borders of Arizona.

In our solar system, the only other moon known to have similar contact between liquid water and rock is Jupiter’s Europa. Both the rock and the water are considered to be essential for the chemistry that could, over eons, turn nonliving matter into living entities.

In space.com, possible life forms is suggested…

“Enceladus’ geysers blast material hundreds of miles into space, offering a way to sample the moon’s subsurface ocean from afar. (Researchers think the ocean is feeding the geysers, though they can’t be sure of this at the moment.)

Cassini has already done some of this work with its mass spectrometer, detecting salts and organic compounds — the carbon-based building blocks of life as we know it — in Enceladus’ plumes during flybys of the moon.”

Origin of life theories invokes extreme explanations based on man’s imagination and then call it, ‘science’…because it’s naturally based rather than supernaturally based. While these researchers talk a big game about what they believe can happen with water and rocks over a long period of time, what they don’t tell you that for years scientists have been trying to produce non-living chemicals to living chemicals and have been unsuccessful.

Not only that but an interview by Steve Benner from the University of Florida that preceded the origin-of-life conference in 2013, revealed…

We have failed in any continuous way to provide a recipe that gets from the simple molecules that we know were present on early Earth to RNA. There is a discontinuous model which has many pieces, many of which have experimental support, but we’re up against these three or four paradoxes, which you and I have talked about in the past.”

The first paradox is the tendency of organic matter to devolve and to give tar. If you can avoid that, you can start to try to assemble things that are not tarry, but then you encounter the water problem, which is related to the fact that every interesting bond that you want to make is unstable, thermodynamically, with respect to water.

“If you can solve that problem, you have the problem of entropy, that any of the building blocks are going to be present in a low concentration; therefore, to assemble a large number of those building blocks, you get a gene-like RNA — 100 nucleotides long — that fights entropy.”

And the fourth problem is that even if you can solve the entropy problem, you have a paradox that RNA enzymes, which are maybe catalytically active, are more likely to be active in the sense that destroys RNA rather than creates RNA.”

So how can these scientists tell us there could be life on other planets with these major problems that exist with their theory? And all they are hoping for is something turning up at one of their conferences!

Let’s put it this way, it’s like creating a pond of salt water, and put rocks in it. The pond will have access to air and weather changes. Do you really believe that the pond will eventually create life forms?

Another question arises, and that is it’s age, assumed to be 4.5 billion years old. Even in their own speculation, the ocean could only last 100 million years at most. Science (the journal) suggests, “tidally kneading” but even their own endorsed scientists the heat flux requires more than what has been observed with tidal heating!

While it doesn’t make sense for evolution, it does make sense for creationism. Cassini is discovering a youthful solar system rather than an old one, this confirms creationism!

Discovering Mature Galaxies In Deep Space

The universe is undermining the uniformity which is the holy grail of secular astronomy of the supposed evolution of galaxies. Astronomers continue to find mature galaxies in deep space with better technology which fifteen years ago would have never been considered by cosmologists to exist despite the fact that Hubble began its discoveries of mature galaxies in deep space during 1995.

In an article “Galaxies In the Early Universe Mature Beyond Their Years”

“The mature galaxies were found at a record-breaking distance of 12 billion light years, seen when the Universe was just 1.6 billion years old. Their existence at such an early time raises new questions about what forced them to grow up so quickly.”

“These distant and early massive galaxies are one of the Holy Grails of astronomy,” Director of the Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing at Swinburne University of Technology, Professor Karl Glazebrook, who was involved in the discovery, said.”

“Fifteen years ago they were predicted not to even exist within the cosmological model favoured at the time. In 2004 I wrote a paper on the discovery of such galaxies existing only three billion years after the Big Bang. Now, with improved technology we are pushing back to only 1.6 billion years, which is truly exciting.”

These fifteen newly discovered galaxies with no evidence of star formation are just as large as our Milky Way. Normally when there is increased complexity in a theory, a new one is developed. Or as Thomas Kuhn would say, anomalies accumulate until a new paradigm replaces it. But Kuhn also said, “normal science” is a puzzle to be solved. When it comes to evolution of anything whether it be earth or the universe, most explanations based on their framework is “normal science”, making it harder for shifts outside of it to occur.

For example, dark matter was invoked to hold the universe together, which began very expensive projects to detect it directly even though they have no clue what they are looking for. What would be the odds in discovering what the properties are by accident? That’s if dark matter really exists at all. These expenses could be used for other things in science. Then there is dark energy, which was invented to explain the universe’s acceleration. Neither has this been detected directly.

Now imagine scientists coming up with a story on how stars form hundreds of times faster than previously believed. Keep in mind there is a difference between observation and explanation. Just because scientists can now observe things like never before, doesn’t mean they know how it came about. It’s like macro-evolution, no chemist in the world both past and present understands it but they use circular reasoning to believe in it because they believe evolution to be true.

Take Professor James M. Tour as an example. He’s one of the best chemists in the world who wrote hundreds of papers that was published in well-known peer-review publications, he states…“most scientists leave few stones unturned in their quest to discern mechanisms before wholeheartedly accepting them, when it comes to the often gross extrapolations between observations and conclusions on macroevolution, scientists, it seems to me, permit unhealthy leeway. When hearing such extrapolations in the academy, when will we cry out, “The emperor has no clothes!”

This happens in cosmology as well. And the reason for this is because they believe in faulty models, instead of following where the evidence leads, they try to shape it so their faulty models remain intact.

Professor James M. Tour is not a creationist neither an intelligent design proponent, but rather believes in evolution. His failed quest to search for understanding of origins about how dead chemicals become alive came to a halt. Nobody in the scientific community, not even an atheist group came forward as requested by him to give him understanding about evolution! Why? Because they don’t understand it either (and some don’t want to admit it in public) but rely on their belief in evolution that it did happen even though they have no viable theory on how it happened. You see, Professor James M. Tour makes molecules for a living and he knows first hand how complex it really is. This complexity makes all the more difficult to make molecules.

This is similar to supposed evolution of stars! Why would stars supposedly evolve in the early part of the universe so rapidly and others did not? Explanations that cannot be proved often times sounds better for the believer in evolution than the actual observation. If other universes become the accepted norm in the scientific community which I think will eventually happen in order to explain such formations, it could never be observed. It also possible they might settle for a dark mechanism and make predictions with that. Dark meaning, it has never been directly observed.

So one looks at their track record for predictions and it isn’t that good, uniformity is the holy grail of astronomy for many years and yet it has been falsified. For creationism, this is a confirmation of God’s handy work of the universe, and I believe there are more mature galaxies even further in space!