In the world of cosmology, the trend of discovering these amazing and well designed mature galaxies which are very distant, and very soon after what secular scientists believe was to be the ‘big bang’ continues!
Using enhanced vision along with a gravitational lens, astronomers at Johns Hopkins University were able to find a galaxy a mere 500 million years from the current assumption on what is the beginning of the universe.
Science magazine’s abstract goes like this…
“Astronomers have recently spotted a galaxy dating back to a mere 500 million years after the big bang. The galaxy, some 13.2 billion light-years from Earth, sets a new record for most distant object sighted by astronomers. Such distant, ancient images are technically beyond the reach of existing telescopes.”
“Imaging the infant universe is a primary goal of the James Webb Space Telescope, being built at a cost of $8.7 billion and expected to launch in 2018. Yet astronomers got a sneak preview thanks to gravitational lensing: an effect in which gravity’s ability to bend light turns weighty objects such as galaxy clusters into magnifying glasses for sources behind them.”
The galaxy’s redshift of z = 9.6 is a record for astronomers, which means it existed close to the beginning. The trend of discovering these mature structures discovered closer and closer to the ‘big bang’ is causing a problem within their framework because it is leaving cosmologists little time to go from random particles to “lumpy” structures like stars and galaxies. Could there be hyper-speed in cosmology evolution being invoked here?
Another estimate in the original paper in Nature, puts the galaxy as being even younger…
“We estimate that it formed less than 200 million years after the Big Bang (at the 95 per cent confidence level), implying a formation redshift of ≲14. Given the small sky area that our observations cover, faint galaxies seem to be abundant at such a young cosmic age, suggesting that they may be the dominant source for the early re-ionization of the intergalactic medium.”
“Epoch of re-ionization” was believed to be 750 million years after the first stars. But a recent discovery by the South Pole Telescope, reported by science daily says this…
“Analysis of data from the National Science Foundation’s South Pole Telescope, for the first time, more precisely defines the period of cosmological evolution when the first stars and galaxies formed and gradually illuminated the universe. The data indicate that this period, called the epoch of reionization, was shorter than theorists speculated — and that it ended early.”
“The epoch’s short duration indicates that reionization was more explosive than scientists had previously thought. It suggests that massive galaxies played a key role in reionization, because smaller galaxies would have formed much earlier.”
“Epoch of re-ionization” is not believed to be between 250 and 500 million years after the big bang! This idea causes confusion (increased complexity) with its own framework because if these massive galaxies played such a key role, it then shortens the time available for the first stars to form, the first dwarf galaxies to form, and then the massive galaxies to form!
Chronological order is required and also a key part to obtain the necessary energy for the re-ionization epoch: “The first stars that formed were probably 30 to 300 times more massive than the sun and millions of times as bright, burning for only a few million years before exploding.”
Over the last 10 years, cosmology has been experiencing pretty good amounts of increased complexity within its framework because of advancements in obtaining new data. Take a look at some of these discoveries which happened in the last 10 years…
1) Quasar 800 million years after big bang: “The extremely high mass is difficult to explain for an object formed so soon after the Big Bang, as it’s theorized supermassive black holes build their mass slowly through galactic mergers and matter accretion.” -Before Its News
2) Mature Galaxies Discovered in Jan 2004…“It’s not quite time for theorists to panic, but we’re getting there,” said astronomer Roberto Abraham of the University of Toronto, Canada, after announcing his group’s discovery of a startling number of mature galaxies in the young universe.” -HighBeam Research
3) A year later in 2005, Galaxy-formation theory is in peril. “These chunky babies may be pointing to a cosmic crisis. They don’t seem to fit the leading theory of galaxy formation, which cosmologists have relied on for more than 2 decades.…”
4) In 2006, another mature galaxy discovered. “Mature galaxy 700 million years after big bang. “The simplest explanation is that the Universe is just too young to have built up many luminous galaxies at z approximately ~7–8 by the hierarchical merging of small galaxies.” -Nature
5) In 2009, Hubble discovers a galaxy…“600 million years after the Big Bang. No galaxies have been seen before at such early times.” -The Hindu: Sci-Tech
6) In 2011, Surprise! Ancient Galaxy Cluster Still Looks Young. “…In an unexpected twist, the galaxy cluster looks very similar to the younger, massive galaxy clusters seen in the universe today.” –space.com
Cosmology in chaos? We see that surprises are the norm rather than a progression of confirmations. Secular cosmologists did not expect to find early maturity, like finding a 2 year old child looking like an 80 year old man! Does one expect to find in the future more out of place observations according to secular cosmology, you bet! Because it’s the wrong framework to use as the new advancements in space exploration shows!