A car gasoline engine cannot be bigger and faster while getting better gas mileage than smaller cars. A computer cannot run more components without using more electricity. Thus, it is not always possible to have all the elements of a product be ideal. Recent recent research shows a unique combination of the two.
The title of the PNAS paper says the “Genetic code translation displays a linear trade-off between efficiency and accuracy of tRNA selection.” There are competing forces the paper admits, “Translation of the ancient and universal genetic code into protein on ribosomes requires precise mRNA decoding by aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) and rapid formation of nascent peptide chains.” Accuracy and speed are required for the cell to survive and since this is the case with the limitations of time and space, how do they work together for the benefit of the cell?
When it comes to the transfer of RNA, the anticodon must find the right codon within a certain time frame. The article says in regards to this, “Codon reading by aa-tRNAs ultimately relies on the specificity of cognate in relation to noncognate codon–anticodon interactions, but two ribosome-dependent specificity enhancements greatly improve mRNA decoding.”
There is not one but incredibly two well-designed mechanisms that act like an editor whose job is to proofread to make sure the job is done right, ” “the ribosome enhances the accuracy of codon reading by a twostep mechanism in which initial codon selection by a tRNA is followed by a proofreading step.” The speed is accomplished by the tRNA matching up initially with its cognate, but “editors” in the ribosome during translation clean up any mistakes.
Then the authors looked for optimizing by examining the “maximal possible discrimination between a cognate and a noncognate codon–anticodon interaction: the ‘d value’,” Just tentative numbers, further study is required for a better conclusion. Not surprisingly, the article then gives credit to evolution where it says, “Finally, we propose that quantitative estimates of the d values of the genetic code in conjunction with the remarkably simple efficiency-accuracy trade-off revealed by the present experiments will clarify how the accuracy in living cells has been evolutionarily tuned for maximal fitness of growing bacteria.”
It really doesn’t explain evolution other than the authors believe in it rather this is amazing observational science. Darwinism actually hinders the science with a better understanding that comes from intelligent design. The designs we see in nature come from a mind not a non-thinking process. These designs are highly advanced and require much study for us mere humans to understand.