CalTech astronomer Fritz Zwicky had many achievements which included the following…In 1937, Zwicky proposed that galaxy clusters could act as gravitational lenses using Einstein’s newly discovered theory. It wasn’t until 1979, when the first observation was accomplished, thus confirming his proposal.
He also worked with others on pioneering Schmidt telescopes where he searched for supernovae and discovered about 120 on his own. But one of his more controversial proposals came from observing stars that were moving so fast, gravity shouldn’t have held them together. To fill in this gap, he postulated that an unseen amount of matter was present.
The proposal became widely accepted by secular astrophysicists despite the fact it remained directly undetected. However, not all secular astrophysicists were convinced. Moffat and Joel Brownstein of Canada’s Perimiter Institute for Theoretical Physics published an alternative view and that was modifying the theory of gravity which they called, “MOG”. In particular, they modified one of Einstein’s equations that explains how mass warps space and time, Moffat explained how the effect of gravity may be more substantial in galactic scales than in smaller scales.
“…it has successfully predicted their motions ‘without the necessity of adding dark matter,’” reports ScienceNOW.”
Because of the popularity among secular astrophysicists despite evidence to the contrary, the quest for dark matter remained at a high level of priority which was now a critical part of the explanation of the big bang theory. Where it is predicted that the origin of the universe had equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Antimatter is the same as matter with the same mass as showed by a proton and an antiproton having the same mass to within one part in 10 billion. However, observational problems occurred because no antimatter domains were detected in space within 20 megaparsecs of the Earth.
In 2009, there was a startling discovery that revealed an excess of these antimatter particles in cosmic rays that came from an European astrophysics experiment. In May 16, 2011, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer with a hefty price tag, costing two billion dollars was launched. Its mission is to measure cosmic rays for the purpose of explaining the origin of the universe and attempt to detect directly, dark matter.
More recently, Stefan Funk and Justin Vandenbroucke from Stanford University, came up with an idea that was inspired by the European astrophysics experiment using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. It was launched in June 2008, with a hefty price tag of $690 million dollars, that has been providing scientists with improved data on gamma rays. The idea wasn’t part of the telescope’s mission but Stefan Funk and Justin Vandenbroucke wondered if it still could be accomplished, specifically the observation of electrons and their antimatter twins, positrons.
This was designed to try to detect, “a sudden drop-off of this excess in those cosmic rays beyond a certain energy level, as many theories predicted would happen if dark matter was involved.” But the observation did not turn up what was predicted, there was no sudden drop-off in the cosmic rays. Thus what was deemed as a promising piece of the puzzle now seems to be in doubt.
In Science Daily…
“Their result casts doubt on the dark matter explanation, which is one reason why the paper started making news just four days after it was published online. The first scholarly paper on the implications of Funk and Vandenbroucke’s work appeared on the physics archive soon thereafter. That paper declared that “the standard positron production scenario must be incomplete.” In other words: Who knows where these excess positrons are coming from?”
So why is all this money being poured into trying to detect dark matter? After all, the money being allocated for these missions could be used for things like fighting diseases, stem cell research, engineering where research focuses on plants and animals to come up with amazing new products or technology. The reason being, the big bang theory relies on dark matter. It is required. It heavily relies on other invisible items as well like dark energy and inflation.
But for creationists models, it doesn’t require dark matter, but even if dark matter were to be detected, the outcome doesn’t affect their models either. This is not to say, these type of observation tools being used to measure such things as gamma rays are totally useless, on the contrary.