What is genetic entropy? Geneticist John Sanford (Cornell) made a proposal which included the accumulation of mutations will always decrease fitness in a process which he called “genetic entropy.” In Darwinian evolution, variations of mutations must add new information to produce innovations that lead to different creatures or other living things like plants. Synergistic epistasis is when beneficial mutations work together but this process has never been observed.
Experiments have shown beneficial mutations working against each other which is known as antagonistic epistasis while other experiments have shown loss in fitness if they worked together rather than alone. Richard Lenski [Michigan State], known for the longest-running experiment on evolution of E. coli, discovered a law of diminishing returns with beneficial mutations due to negative epistasis!
The paper published in science…
“Epistatic interactions between mutations play a prominent role in evolutionary theories. Many studies have found that epistasis is widespread, but they have rarely considered beneficial mutations. We analyzed the effects of epistasis on fitness for the first five mutations to fix in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Epistasis depended on the effects of the combined mutations—the larger the expected benefit, the more negative the epistatic effect. Epistasis thus tended to produce diminishing returns with genotype fitness, although interactions involving one particular mutation had the opposite effect. These data support models in which negative epistasis contributes to declining rates of adaptation over time.“
Notice how when the expected fitness rose there was an overall negative relation, indicating the epistatic effects were not going toward a positive conclusion. Near the end, the authors did confirm witnessing a type of genetic entropy:
“A conspicuous feature of the mean-fitness trajectory for this population—and indeed for most experimental populations evolving in a constant environment—is that the rate of adaptation declined over time.” The reason they gave was that “epistatic interactions contribute greatly to this deceleration by reducing the effect-size of the remaining beneficial mutations as a population approaches a fitness peak. In other words, epistasis acts as a drag that reduces the contribution of later beneficial mutations.”
And they say creationism doesn’t predict anything in science. Only in their delusions and denials, let me repeat this again, Geneticist John Sanford (Cornell) made a proposal which included the accumulation of mutations will always decrease fitness in a process which he called “genetic entropy.” This experiment is quite encouraging to Christians who believe God created all things
In other study, it discovered the same thing. Researchers in Massachusetts even put “diminishing returns” in the title of their paper.
“These results provide the first evidence that patterns of epistasis may differ for within- and between-gene interactions during adaptation and that diminishing returns epistasis contributes to the consistent observation of decelerating fitness gains during adaptation.” Aware of the study by Khan et al, they claimed that “across these two distinct model systems 7 of 10 alleles consistently showed antagonism, whereas only 2 exhibited synergy.”
Mutations are like air tanks on a scuba diver, they weigh him or her down! Positive mutations are very small, a mere bubble that has no hope of keep the diver afloat. Evolution cannot rationalize, nor can it see the shoreline. If Geneticist John Sanford continued to be an evolutionist, no doubt some of these research papers would be using his exact term. It is recommended that you read his book, Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome (Ivan Press, 2005) for more insight.