Mutations are a significance importance for demonstrating how evolution works in nature. They play a role in bacterial adaptation and transformation to changing environments. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is an example and often times used as evolution in action. Mutations, some of which use information from other bacteria enable the organism to survive exposure to various antibiotics, but with a cost. This is known as antagonistic pleiotropy. The mutant bacteria suffers a loss or reduction of pre-existing activities such as regulatory, or transport systems.
Peter A. Lind, Otto G. Berg, and Dan I. Andersson from Uppsala University conducted an experiment on Salmonella bacterium which was published recently in Science…
“A total of 126 random base-pair substitutions were engineered into the rpsT and rplA genes, encoding the ribosomal proteins S20 and L1, respectively (22). These two proteins are nonessential, but deletion mutants lacking either of these ribosomal proteins have severely reduced fitness.”
“Thus, putative mutational effects on fitness can be measured over a large range, and the fitness of complete loss-of-function mutations is known and is larger than zero. We used bacterial growth rate to measure the fitness effects of the mutations. The involvement of ribosomal proteins in translation and the direct relation of translation rates to exponential growth rates (23) ensure that fitness effects will be directly correlated to the quality and quantity of available ribosomes.”
The scientists had the flexibility to insert mutations in any area along the length of the genome. The results surprised these evolutionary scientists and others because it caused a reduction in fitness rather than an increase which evolution requires. It’s similar to the fruit fly experiment which took 35 years.
“These small fitness costs suggest that the fitness constraints on the mRNA for the two ribosomal protein genes are highly conserved between related bacterial species and that this functional conservation is largely independent of codon usage.”
This confirms the creationist model which predicts life staying relatively the same (variants within a kind) or a downward trend as the result of mutation activity. Evolutionary explanations lack the ability (despite declaring as a fact) to provide evidence for a genetic mechanism that accounts for the origin or expansion of biological systems which is why their experiments produce falsifications rather than opening a pathway to new information. However, researching how mutations work play a vital role for understanding diseases and how to combat its effect on people to improve the quality of life. This is where science will be more successful.