Satoshi Okuzumi, “Electric Charging of Dust Aggregates and Its Effect on Dust Coagulation in Interplanetary Disks,” is another example, of the story in naturalism.
“Let us consider a small population of irregularly large aggregates (referred to as “test aggregates”) growing with a large population of standard (D ~ 2) fractal aggregates (“field aggregates”). Under this assumption, the kinetic energy of relative motion between test and field aggregates is written as … ”
Impressive jargon, but it’s not logical. According to this paper in it’s attempt to try and explain how these tiny dust particles turns into planets one needs large pre-existing large dust particles.
“Therefore, if there exists an aggregate that is large and compact, it will be able to continue growing by sweeping up smaller “frozen” aggregates.”
So why is he claiming all this crazy stuff about pre-existing large dust particles needed to build a planet in naturalism? There is a major problem with the dust known as the “electrostatic barrier” which is the reason why there has been little attention over many years paid to answering and solving this question; “What happens when cosmic rays add static electricity to the clumps?”
I’ll tell you what basically happens, the static charge builds up and forms a barrier then it starts repelling particles from sticking to each other. Thus, it makes it impossible for the dust to build any futher. Problematic wouldn’t you say? Now how can this problem be solved? What would happen next to enable those dust particles to keep building?
Okuzumi suggested that turbulence might be an answer. However, this presents another problem, turbulence only happens at 20AU which is about the radial distance of Uranus. Turbulence causes another problem, raising the collision rate.
Obviously, this paper has open up more gaps than it has solved. Some will say, the solution is out there, we just haven’t found it yet. This is not about the science, but a matter of assumptions about initial conditions. Why not model things from the top down?