In CRSQ (Creation Research Society Quarterly Winter 2009) contained a highly impressive science paper from Yingguang Liu who attends Maranatha Baptist Bible College which I’m personally fimilar with as I been there a few times.
The science paper argues on various points that gene duplication, a process which creates extra copies of genes within the genome leads to a downward process instead of an upward process which many evolutionary biologists believe it does.
Does historical science based on evolution show all gene families produced by ancient events of duplication? Yingguang Liu writes…“Duplication of large chromosomal segments or entire chromosomes causes severe imbalance between the genes, resulting in malformation or diseases, Down’s sndrome” he notes as the best example.
What about smaller duplications? After all, this is one of the main reasons evolutionists believe Darwinism works…Yingguang Liu writes,..“Even small duplications within the protein coding regions may cause problems such as frame-shift mutations.”
Also “gene dosage effects” do not increase new genetic information which is a key component for evolution. One has parental traits encoded by pre-existing information from the parents.
The cell has a defense mechanism to counter duplicated genes, known as; homology dependent gene silencing. Liu makes an outstanding point about irreducible complex systems not being created by gene duplication. He then quotes Michael Behe’s book, Back Box which says, “a single system composed of several well-matched parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of those parts causes the system to effectively stop functioning.” Michael Behe is not a creationist, but an intelligent design proponent, whose point about irreducible complexity is correct.
Also, networks which are irreducibly complex are not the products of gene duplication either. “Advanced organism have a significant fraction of their genomes as regulatory sequences which have no homologues in simplier organisms (Liu and Doran 2006).”
Gene duplication is not the major means of producing new information, in fact duplication of genes is supressed by other cell functions. Mutations which I didn’t mention is also contained in this science paper lead to degeneration. Liu ends it with…“studies of copy-number polymorphisms within species will certainly shed more light on this topic.” I agree.
I would like to add, developing more methods on detecting design. I also would like to see Yingguang Liu focus on another aspect in science like specified complexity. Just like a painter’s painting, he might not be around or visible, but the pattern is there for observation and testing. I recommend reading Liu’s science paper in it’s entirety on gene duplication as I didn’t mention everything he wrote plus he backs up what he says through illustrations as well.